Planet and Star Formation Department
Young Stellar Clusters 8m-class telescopes like the VLT and LBT, and sensitive infrared instruments facilitate studies of the stellar populations in young clusters down to substellar masses in the solar neighbourhood and throughout the Milky Way. Focal points of our research are determining key properties of stellar populations like multiplicity, upper (or lower) mass limits in the stellar mass function, cluster dynamics and kinematics (derived from precise multi-epoch astrometric measurements), understanding the impact of the ionising radiation from hot massive stars on the formation and early evolution of low-mass stars (disk dispersal time scales, etc.), and a better understanding of the physical processes leading to the formation of the most massive young clusters. Our studies include nearby clusters like the Hyades, where we compiled a concise catalogue of binary and single star, which facilitate a better understanding of the dynamical evolution of the Hyades. The Hyades single star sequence also serves as a powerful benchmark to test and calibrate theoretical stellar evolutionary and atmospheric models. The most massive star formation sites in the Milky Way like the Carina Nebula, the spiral arm Giant HII regions NGC 3603 and W49, or the Galactic Center region with its twin starburst cluster Arches and Quintuplet, and the central nuclear cluster are all located in the Galactic plane at distances between 2 to more than 10 kpc from the Sun. Because of the high stellar density and large dust column densities, these studies require high-angular resolution observations (to overcome crowding) and observations in the infrared (to overcome the extinction by dust grains). In all of these regions there is strong evidence for massive stars with masses in excess of 100 times the mass of the Sun. The 2nd generation of instruments for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer, like, e.g., the GRAVITY/CIAO instrument, facilitate detailed studies of individual massive stars, including measurements of their physical diameters and shapes, and spatially resolved studies of their winds and outflows. While there is a multitude of low- and high-mass star formation sites in the Milky Way, these sites all have in common a metallicity (degree of enrichment by heavy elements) similar to the solar metallicity. Extragalactic star-forming regions offer the unique opportunity to study star formation at different metallicities. The metallicity and the amount of dust has a strong impact on the physical and chemical properties of any star formation site and for extragalactic star formation sites the enormous input of energy into the surrounding interstellar medium by the hot and luminous stars in form of stellar winds or supernovae explosions can in principle strongly alter the star formation process.