D. Fischer (Yale University, United States),
J. Yee (The Ohio State University),
J. Sahlmann (Observatoire de Geneve, Switzerland),
B. Macintosh (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, United States),
G. Laughlin (University of California at Santa Cruz, United States),
S. Mahadevan (Pennsylvania State University, United States),
A. Howard (Institute for Astronomy, Hawaii, United States)

These are still the early days of exoplanet discovery. Astronomers are beginning to model the atmospheres and interiors of exoplanets and have developed a deeper understanding of processes of planet formation and evolution. However, we have yet to map out the full complexity of multi-planet architectures or to detect Earth analogues around nearby stars. Reaching these ambitious goals will require continued improvements in instrumentation and analysis tools. In this chapter, we provide an overview of five observational techniques that are currently employed in the detection of exoplanets: optical and IR Doppler measurements, transit photometry, microlensing, astrometry and direct imaging. We provide a basic description of how the techniques work and discuss forefront development to keep these methods productive. We highlight the observational limitations and synergies of each method as well as connections to future space missions.

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