Protostars and Planets VI, Heidelberg, July 15-20, 2013
Inside-Out Planet Formation
Tan, Jonathan (University of Florida)
Chatterjee, Sourav (University of Florida)
The compact multi-transiting planet systems discovered by Kepler challenge planet formation theory. Formation in situ from disks with radial mass surface density profiles similar to the minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN) but boosted in normalization by factors >10 has been suggested. We propose that a more natural way to create these planets in the inner disk is formation sequentially from the inside-out via creation of successive gravitationally unstable rings fed from a continuous stream of small (~cm-m size) “pebbles”, drifting inwards via gas drag. Pebbles collect at the pressure maximum associated with the transition from a magneto-rotational instability (MRI)-inactive (“dead zone”) region to an inner MRI-active zone. A pebble ring builds up until it either becomes gravitationally unstable to form an ~1-10M_Earth planet directly or induces gradual planet formation via core accretion. The planet may undergo Type I migration into the active region, allowing a new pebble ring and planet to form behind it. Alternatively if migration is inefficient, the planet may continue to accrete from the disk until it becomes massive enough to isolate itself from the accretion flow. A variety of densities may result depending on the relative importance of residual gas accretion as the planet approaches its isolation mass. The process can repeat with a new pebble ring gathering at the new pressure maximum associated with the retreating dead zone boundary. Our simple theoretical model for this scenario of inside-out planet formation yields planetary masses, relative mass scalings with orbital radius, and minimum orbital separations consistent with those seen by Kepler. It provides an explanation of how massive planets can form with tightly-packed system architectures, starting from typical protoplanetary disk properties.
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